DEPRESSION

Depression is a mental disorder characterized by the depressive triad, which includes a decrease in mood, disorders in thinking (pessimistic view of everything happening around, loss of the ability to feel joy, negative judgments), and motor retardation. Some doctors prescribe for depression: https://pillintrip.com/medicine/eglonyl.

Depression is accompanied by lowered self-esteem, loss of taste for life, and loss of interest in habitual activities. In some cases, a person experiencing a depressive state begins to abuse alcohol, as well as other available psychotropic substances.

Depression, as a mental disorder, manifests itself as pathological affect. The illness itself is perceived by people and patients as a manifestation of laziness and bad character, as well as selfishness and pessimism. It should be taken into account that a depressive state is not only a bad mood, but is often a psychosomatic illness that requires specialist intervention. The earlier an accurate diagnosis is made and treatment begun, the more likely recovery success.

Manifestations of depression are effectively treated, despite the fact that the disease is very common among people of all ages. Statistics show that depression affects 10% of people over the age of 40, two-thirds of whom are women. People over 65 years of age are three times more often affected by mental illness. Among adolescents and children, 5% suffer from depressive states, and adolescence accounts for 15 to 40% of young people with a high suicide rate.

Causes of depression

There are many causes that can lead to the onset of the illness. These include dramatic experiences associated with loss (a loved one, social position, a certain status in society, work). In this case, there is a reactive depression, which occurs as a reaction to an event, a situation from outside life.

The causes of depression can manifest themselves in stressful situations (nervous breakdown), caused by physiological or psychosocial factors. In this case, the social cause of the disease is associated with a high pace of life, high competitiveness, an increased level of stress, uncertainty about the future, social instability and difficult economic conditions. Modern society cultivate

s and therefore imposes a number of values that condemn humanity to constant dissatisfaction with itself. This is the cult of physical as well as personal perfection, the cult of personal well-being and power. Because of this, people are heavily experienced and begin to hide personal problems as well as failures. If the psychological as well as somatic causes of depression don’t reveal themselves, this is how endogenous depression manifests itself.

The causes of depression are also linked to a lack of biogenic amines, which include serotonin, noradrenaline, as well as dopamine.

Causes of depression can be triggered by sunless weather, darkened rooms. In this way, seasonal depression manifests itself in the fall and winter.

Causes of depression can manifest themselves as a result of the side effects of medications (benzodiazepines, corticosteroids). Often this condition disappears on its own after withdrawal of the medication taken.

The depressive state caused by taking neuroleptics can last up to 1.5 years with a vital character. In some cases, the causes lie in the abuse of sedatives, as well as sleeping pills, cocaine, alcohol, and psychostimulants.

Causes of depression can be triggered by somatic diseases (Alzheimer’s disease, influenza, craniocerebral trauma, atherosclerosis of the cerebral arteries).

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What is Muscerol?

Caffeine is used in this combination to increase the pain relieving effects of aspirin and Orphenadrine (Muscerol).

Muscerol is a muscle relaxant. It works by blocking nerve impulses (or pain sensations) that are sent to the brain.

Muscerol (aspirin/caffeine/Orphenadrine (Muscerol)) is used, along with rest and physical therapy, to treat injuries and other painful muscular conditions.

This medicine may also be used for purposes other than those listed in this medication guide.

MUSCEROL INDICATIONS

Muscerol (Orphenadrine (Muscerol) citrate, asprin and caffeine tablets) (Orphenadrine (Muscerol) Citrate, Aspirin and Caffeine 25mg/385mg/30 mg) and Muscerol (Orphenadrine (Muscerol) citrate, asprin and caffeine tablets) Forte (Orphen-adrine Citrate, Aspirin and Caffeine 50 mg/770 mg/60 mg)

Tablets are indicated in:

  1. Symptomatic relief of mild to moderate pain of acute musculoskeletal disorders.
  2. The Orphenadrine (Muscerol) compon-nent is indicated as an adjunct to rest, physical therapy, and other measures for the relief of discomfort associated with acute painfulmusculoskel-etal conditions.

The mode or action of or-phenadrine has not been clearly identified, but may be related to its analgesic properties. Muscerol (Orphenadrine (Muscerol) citrate, asprin and caffeine tablets) Tablets and Muscerol (Orphenadrine (Muscerol) citrate, asprin and caffeine tablets) Forte Tablets do not directly relax tense skeletal muscles in man.

HOW SHOULD I USE MUSCEROL?

Muscerol is a muscle relaxant. It works by blocking nerve impulses
Muscerol is a muscle relaxant. It works by blocking nerve impulses

Use Muscerol as directed by your doctor. Check the label on the medicine for exact dosing instructions.

  • Take Muscerol by mouth with or without food. If stomach upset occurs, take with food to reduce stomach irritation.
  • Take Muscerol with a full glass of water (8 oz/240 mL). Do not lie down for 30 minutes after taking Muscerol.
  • Use Muscerol exactly as directed on the package, unless instructed differently by your doctor. If you are taking Muscerol without a prescription, follow any warnings and precautions on the label.
  • If you miss a dose of Muscerol and you are taking it regularly, take it as soon as possible. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once.

Ask your health care provider any questions you may have about how to use Muscerol.

USES OF MUSCEROL IN DETAILS

There are specific as well as general uses of a drug or medicine. A medicine can be used to prevent a disease, treat a disease over a period or cure a disease. It can also be used to treat the particular symptom of the disease. The drug use depends on the form the patient takes it.

How to use Muscerol

MUSCEROL DESCRIPTION

A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Muscerol&

MUSCEROL DOSAGE

Muscerol (Orphenadrine (Muscerol) citrate with aspirin and caffeine) : Adults 1 to 2 tablets 3 to 4 times daily.

Muscerol (Orphenadrine (Muscerol) citrate with aspirin and caffeine) Forte: Adults ½ to 1 tablet 3 to 4 times daily.

How supplied

Muscerol (Orphenadrine (Muscerol) citrate with aspirin and caffeine) tablets can be identified by their two layers colored white and yellow. Each round tablet is embossed “Muscerol (Orphenadrine (Muscerol) citrate with aspirin and caffeine) ” on one side and “3M” on the other and contains Orphenadrine (Muscerol) citrate (2-dimethylaminoethyl 2-methylbenzhydryl ether citrate) 25 mg, aspirin 385 mg, and caffeine 30 mg.

Muscerol (Orphenadrine (Muscerol) citrate with aspirin and caffeine) Forte tablets are exactly twice the strength of Muscerol (Orphenadrine (Muscerol) citrate with aspirin and caffeine). They are identified by their scored capsule shape and by their two layers colored white and yellow. Each capsule shaped tablet is embossed “Muscerol (Orphenadrine (Muscerol) citrate with aspirin and caffeine) FORTE” on one side and “3M” on the other and contains Orphenadrine (Muscerol) citrate 50 mg, aspirin 770 mg, and caffeine 60 mg.

Muscerol (Orphenadrine (Muscerol) citrate with aspirin and caffeine) and Muscerol (Orphenadrine (Muscerol) citrate with aspirin and caffeine) Forte also contain: lactose, polyethylene glycol, povidone, starch, sucrose, zinc stearate, and D&C yellow #10.

Muscerol (Orphenadrine (Muscerol) citrate with aspirin and caffeine) : Bottles of 100 tablets (NDC 0089-0231-10) and 500 tablets (NDC 0089-0231-50).

Muscerol (Orphenadrine (Muscerol) citrate with aspirin and caffeine) Forte: Bottles of 100 tablets (NDC 0089-0233-10) and 500 tablets (NDC 0089-0233-50).

Store below 30°C (86°F).

MAY 1998. 3M Pharmaceuticals, Northridge, CA 91324.

MUSCEROL INTERACTIONS

Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) is known to be the major enzyme involved in the metabolism of caffeine. Therefore, caffeine has the potential to interact with drugs that are substrates for CYP1A2, inhibit CYP1A2, or induce CYP1A2.

Few data exist on drug interactions with caffeine in preterm neonates. Based on adult data, lower doses of caffeine may be needed following coadministration of drugs which are reported to decrease caffeine elimination (e.g., cimetidine and ketoconazole) and higher caffeine doses may be needed following coadministration of drugs that increase caffeine elimination (e.g., phenobarbital and phenytoin).

Muscerol administered concurrently with ketoprofen reduced the urine volume in 4 healthy volunteers. The clinical significance of this interaction in preterm neonates is not known.

Interconversion between caffeine and theophylline has been reported in preterm neonates. The concurrent use of these drugs is not recommended.

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What the drug Epitomax is used for

Epitomax

Epitomax is an antiepileptic drug, belongs to the class of sulfate-substituted monosaccharides. It blocks sodium channels and suppresses the occurrence of repetitive action potentials against the background of prolonged depolarization of the neuron membrane. Epitomax increases the activity of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) against several subtypes of GABA receptors (including GABA receptors), as well as modulates the activity of GABA receptors themselves, prevents activation of kainate/AMPK (a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid)-receptors to glutamate, does not affect N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) activity against the NMDA-receptor subtype. These effects of Epitomax are dose-dependent at plasma concentrations of Epitomax of 1 to 200 μmol/L, with minimal activity between 1 and 10 μmol/L.

In addition, Epitomax inhibits the activity of certain carboanhydrase isoenzymes (II-IV). Epitomax is significantly inferior to acetazolamide, a known carbohydrase inhibitor, in terms of the severity of this pharmacological effect, so this action of Epitomax is not a major component of its antiepileptic activity.

Indications for use of Epitomax

What the drug Epitomax is used for
  • in monotherapy in adults and children over 6 years of age with partial (with or without secondary generalization) or primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures;
  • as part of complex therapy in adults and children over 3 years of age with partial, with or without secondary generalization, or generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and also for treatment of seizures caused by Lennox-Gastaud syndrome;
  • Prevention of migraine attacks in adults after careful evaluation of all possible alternatives. Epitomax is not intended to treat acute migraine attacks.

Dosing regimen

Orally, regardless of meals. Tablets should not be divided.
For optimal seizure control, it is recommended that treatment begin with a low dose followed by an increase to an effective dose. When used as monotherapy, the possible effect of withdrawal of concomitant antiepileptic drugs on seizure frequency should be considered. In cases where there is no need to abruptly cancel antiepileptic drugs, it is recommended to reduce their doses gradually, reducing doses by 1/3 every 2 weeks. When drugs that are inducers of microsomal liver enzymes are withdrawn, the concentration of Epitomax in plasma will increase, which should be taken into account in the ongoing therapy.

Monotherapy

What the drug Epitomax is used for

In adults at the beginning of monotherapy – 25 mg 1 time per night for 1 week. Then the dose is increased at 1-2 week intervals by 25-50 mg/day (the daily dose is divided into 2 doses). If intolerant to this therapy regimen, the dose is increased by a smaller amount or at longer intervals. The dose is adjusted depending on the effectiveness and tolerability of the therapy. The recommended initial target dose is 100-200 mg/day, the maximum daily dose should not exceed 500 mg in monotherapy. Dosing recommendations apply to all adults, including elderly patients without kidney disease.

For children over 6 years old in monotherapy in the first week of treatment, 0.5-1 mg/kg body weight before bedtime. Then the dose is increased at 1-2 week intervals by 0.5-1 mg/kg/day (daily dose is divided into two doses). If this therapy regimen is intolerant, the dose is increased more gently or at longer intervals between dose increases. The size of the dose and the rate of dose increase are determined by clinical efficacy and tolerability of therapy. The recommended dose range for Epitomax monotherapy in children is 100 mg/day and depends on clinical efficacy (in children aged 6-16 years, it is about 2 mg/kg/day).

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Brain hydrocephaly

If excess fluid accumulates in the human brain, which does not allow the organ to function normally, they talk about watercolor or brain hydrocephaly. Excess fluid increases pressure on brain structures by pressing them against the skull. In the absence of timely diagnosis and qualified treatment, the patient may die. The success of treatment depends on the degree of lesion, severity of the process, symptoms and concomitant pathologies. The disease may be congenital and acquired.

Types of dropsy

Classification of brain hydrocephaly is quite complicated, with erased diagnostic boundaries. Until recently, this disease was attributed exclusively to children, but today it is proven that the development of dropsy is also possible in adults.

Clinical manifestations of hydrocephaly are divided into groups:

  • The mixed form is heavy, the volume of fluid increases inside the brain and outside. The prognosis is unfavorable. Violations cause seizures of epilepsy, seizures, paralysis of the limbs.
  • Atrophic hydrocephaly of the head develops against the background of brain injury. The ventricles increase symmetrically, the volume of gray and white matter decreases. In a month after the injury, the changes become visible. This is a natural reaction of the body. The prognosis of post-traumatic disease is unfavorable.
  • Vicarious hydrocephaly – ventricles increase, but the anatomical structure of the brain does not change. Prognosis – favorable, provided that it is detected at an early stage. In the vast majority of cases, the disease development can be stopped and stabilized.
  • Hypotrophic hydrocephaly develops as a reaction to brain nutrition disorder, when soft tissues lack nutrients. A person has a headache, vestibular functions are impaired. The condition aggravates nausea and vomiting.
  • The compensatory form manifests itself when the acute stage of the disease has passed. The volume of fluid in the ventricles stabilizes, but their volume remains increased. No treatment is provided.
  • Non-occlusive form – changes do not cause hypertension. The nature of the disorders is not clear, the inflow and outflow of liquor is kept at the same level, the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid is within acceptable limits.
  • Partial form – increase in fluid volume causes neurological changes. Epileptic seizures are a characteristic feature of the disease.
  • Discirculatory hydrocephaly – lack of cerebral blood circulation is diagnosed often accompanied by atrophic processes.

In any etiology, dropsy remains a dangerous disease, resulting in brain dysfunction, impaired thinking ability and perception of information. It is important to identify the disease at an early stage and stop its development.

Reasons for the development of the pathology

Brain hydrocephaly

The human brain consists of soft tissues located in the skull. To protect against damage in the cavity, a liquor is circulated – the fluid fills the inner ventricles and grooves. When a person is healthy, the inflow and outflow of liquor is balanced. Performance of their functions does not affect the health of the patient. If there are disorders due to the development of tumors, injuries and infections, the intracranial pressure increases and the process of lycvor movement is disturbed, causing changes in brain function and neurological manifestations. Hydrocephaly may develop against a background of stroke or tumor development.

How does hydrocephalus manifest itself?

Brain hydrocephaly

In moderate development of the process, minor neurological disorders are manifested. One should not ignore: nausea; headache; vomiting; vision deterioration; changes in the appearance of eyeballs; vestibular apparatus problems; mental disorders. The open external shape has similar manifestations to the disorder of the psyche. If the diagnosis is wrong, the patient will be treated in a psychiatric hospital, and the main disease will remain unnoticed. To make a correct diagnosis, the neurologist prescribes additional examinations.

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Abdominal Ascites

Ascites, sometimes called vodka stomach, is not a separate disease, but a complication of a number of independent diseases. And almost all of them are extremely dangerous for health and life. How do they diagnose abdominal ascites, what causes it and whether it can be cured?

Ascites: a disease or a symptom?

Abdominal Ascites

A pathological accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity is called ascites. A small amount of ascites is always present in the abdominal cavity. This fluid constantly moves into lymphatic vessels, and its place is new, and it is a completely natural process. But with some disorders in the body, this fluid either starts to be produced in excess or it stops being absorbed. As a result, it gradually accumulates and begins to pressure the internal organs, impairing their functioning.

Causes of ascites

The list of diseases and violations in which ascites can occur is quite impressive. Among them: liver cirrhosis; some cancers causing peritoneal metastases; tuberculosis; peritonitis (bacterial, tuberculosis, mycotic, parasitic); Badda Chiari syndrome and disease;
kidney disease, including renal failure of various genesis; gastrointestinal diseases: acute pancreatitis or exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis, Whipple’s disease; heart failure; endometriosis, cysts and ovarian tumors; kidney disease; malnutrition and exhaustion;
endocrine system diseases.
However, if a person is diagnosed with abdominal ascites, liver cirrhosis (the cause of 81% of cases of ascites), cancer (10% of cases), heart failure (3% of cases) are usually the first on suspicion in doctors. Sometimes there are mixed cases – liver cirrhosis in combination with another pathology (5%). Such causes as tuberculosis, pancreatic diseases and others do not exceed 1% in total.
In 60% of patients within ten years from the discovery of compensated cirrhosis of the liver such a complication as swelling-ascitic syndrome (ascites) develops. Its appearance is a marker of adverse development of the disease: within the first year from the moment of clinical detection of ascites the mortality rate is close to 40%, five-year survival rate is less than 50%. Of course, ascites occurs not in all people suffering from the above diseases. However, there are risk factors that increase the chances of ascites development: alcoholism, drug addiction, hepatitis, obesity and high cholesterol levels, as well as diabetes mellitus.

Signs of pathology

Abdominal Ascites

Abdominal ascites most often develop gradually over many months, and therefore most patients do not pay attention to it for a very long time. Often, people just think that they are gaining weight. In the early stages, it is really difficult to notice ascites: you need to collect at least a liter of fluid. Only then the typical symptoms of abdominal ascites begin to appear: abdominal pain, flatulence, burp and heartburn, breathing difficulties, swelling of the legs. As the volume of fluid increases, the abdomen also increases, and soon it becomes difficult for the person to bend. The stomach takes the form of a ball, stretching and dilated veins may appear.
But in order to suspect ascites, there are few external signs – you should consult with a doctor.

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Vodian testis (hydrocele)

Child’s watermark testis (hydrocele) – a pathology that results in the formation of fluid in the testicular shells, resulting in scrotum enlargement on one or both sides. If you do not start treatment in time, the disease can lead to severe swelling of the groin and genitalia. Dropsy testis in children often appears only on one side: dropsy from the left or dropsy from the right testicle.

Symptoms

Vodian testis (hydrocele)

When watering the testicles in boys, an increase in scrotum size on one or both sides is observed. In the case of the hydrotarget, scrotal enlargement is transient; in the case of the isolated one, scrotal enlargement is gradual. Boys’ scrotum sizes may reach goose eggs and in neglected cases – child’s head. The reported dropsy testis in boys may have different size and stress during the day: the largest size of scrotum tumor reaches the day when the child moves; at night, in the lying position, the tumor may disappear due to emptying the contents of the dropsy bag into the abdomen. As a rule, the dropsy testis in boys runs painlessly and without signs of inflammation. In case of secondary infection of hydrocele, painfulness, redness of scrotum, chills, fever, vomiting may appear. With a large volume of accumulated fluid, children may have difficulty urinating and develop acute urinary retention. Older children report unpleasant sensations, heaviness in the groin area, and walking discomfort.

Reasons

Classification of hydrocele testis depends on the reasons that provoked the formation of the pathology. Water lining of the testicles may be congenital and acquired. Congenital hydrocele is recognized in about eighty percent of infants. The causes of the formation of hydrocele are failure in the development of testicles. As the child grows from the abdomen, the testicle descends along the groin canal, which is shrouded in the vaginal process of the peritoneum. Within a few months, if the vaginal process does not grow, the fluid from the abdominal cavity is transferred to the testicular shells. Purchased hydrocele mainly occurs due to damage and inflammatory processes. Reasons for the formation of acquired hydrocele shells: inflammation of the testis or orchitis, inflammation of appendages, genital tumors, complications of the cardiovascular system, mechanical damage and injuries, the consequences of surgery.

Diagnostics

Vodian testis (hydrocele)

Scrotum examination is performed in standing and lying position. This diagnostic technique is used to find out the shape of the testicular hydrocele in boys (communicating or not communicating with the abdomen). If the size of the hydrocele decreases in the lying position, you should think about the communication of the water cavity with the abdominal cavity. Also in favor of the communicating hydrocele testis is evidenced by an increase in the size of hydroceles when coughing, ie, when the intra-abdominal pressure increases. Palpatorno hydrocele in boys is defined as a pear-shaped seal, its upper part facing towards the groin canal.
Ultrasound examination of scrotum and inguinal canals confirms the diagnosis of hydrocele in boys and excludes more serious pathology (testicular cancer, inflammation or twisting of the testicle or its appendage). In addition, ultrasound of the scrotum is a highly sensitive method in determining the type of hydrocele in boys (communicating or not communicating).

Treatment

Watery testicular shells are quite common in newborn boys and in most cases passes independently during the first year of life. If there is no independent disappearance of fluid, it is recommended to conduct surgical treatment after 1 year and 6 months. If the accumulation of fluid in the testicular membranes occurs at the age of 2-3 years and older, the operation is also usually shown. In addition, there are a number of indications in which the operation is performed in children from 12 to 18 months of age: joining to a watercolored testicular membrane inguinal hernia, the presence of too much fluid in the scrotum, which causes excessive tension of the testicular membranes, discomfort or pain in the scrotum.
The intervention is done through a small incision (2-3 cm) in the inguinal area. After surgical treatment of hydrocele, the child’s testicle is sutured and a sterile bandage is applied. There is no scar on the abdomen. Remains a low-profile scar, a length of 2 cm. On average, the operation with dropsy testis in children lasts 35-60 minutes.

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Urologist

Dr. Denis Slinkin

It’s believed that a urologist is a male doctor.

However, an urologist doctor deals with urinary system diseases in both men and women. Cystitis, urinary incontinence, urolithiasis, kidney disease – all this also cures urologist. Therefore, both men and women, as well as children, can see a doctor, says Dr. Denis Slinkin.

  • Dr. Denis Slinkin says it’s better to record as soon as you feel pain, discomfort or burning during your urination;
  • You notice that there are changes in urination – it’s too frequent, or vice versa;
  • You feel pain in your kidneys;
  • the color of your urine has changed, the blood in your urine;
  • pain at the bottom of the abdomen and in the groin area;
  • There are problems during intercourse and so on.
Dr. Denis Slinkin

At the consultation urologists can not only take the necessary tests, but also conduct ultrasound if necessary:

  • Ultrasound of the kidneys and bladder;
  • ultrasound of the prostate gland (prostate);
  • ultrasound of the scrotum and testicles;
  • ultrasound of the adrenal glands;
  • ultrasound of the kidneys and adrenals.
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